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Can Alzheimer’s disease be detected through genetic testing?

alzheimer genetic testing

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a steadily progressive degenerative process that leads to total dementia. Atrophy of the cerebral cortex and limbic system is accompanied by irreversible impairments of neurological and mental functions, predominantly deficient in nature. In AD, there is an increasing decay of memory, intelligence and higher cortical functions, leading to total dementia with the development of helplessness and the need for care and constant monitoring of the patient.

In persons with first-degree relatives suffering from AD, the risk of the disease increases by 3.5 times. Concordance for AD in dizygotic twins is 35%, and in monozygotic twins – more than 80%. Consequently, most cases have a complex genetic contribution.

The genetic heritability of Alzheimer’s disease

Clinical Significance: Genetic predisposition is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, it has been shown that AD includes several genetically heterogeneous forms, united by similar clinical and histopathological features. The cause or risk factor for the development of some (if not all) forms of AD are mutations or polymorphisms in a number of genes.

The study of genetic markers allows you to identify the risk group of patients with Alzheimer’s disease for possible corrective action.

Indications for research:

  • determination of the risk of asthma and the prognosis of severity in case of manifestations of dementia in a patient;
  • examination of relatives of patients diagnosed with asthma to identify an increased risk of developing the disease.

Alzheimer’s disease has a hereditary component. People with the disease in their parents or siblings are at a slightly higher chance of developing it. However, we’re still a long way from fully comprehending the genetic changes that cause the disease to develop.

Alzheimer’s disease is most commonly triggered by older years. It primarily affects adults over the age of 65. A person’s risk of having Alzheimer’s disease doubles every five years once they reach this age. Dementia affects one out of every six persons over the age of 80, with Alzheimer’s disease being the most common cause.

  • Alzheimer Risk Test
    Alzheimer Risk Test
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Achiko creates a dengue fever test based on DNA aptamers.

The development of a DNA aptamer-based dengue fever diagnostic test has been disclosed by Achiko, a healthtech business that develops technology to provide rapid, affordable diagnostic testing for COVID-19 and other pathogenic diseases.

AptameX, a quick COVID-19 diagnostic test incorporated into a digital platform called Teman Sehat (“Health Buddy”), has already acquired emergency use approval in Indonesia, and the company has recently received initial purchase orders. AptameX is based on aptamer technology, which uses synthetic (made) DNA to bind to the virus’s spike protein (S1), which is subsequently targeted by the test.

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is common in the tropics, especially in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific.

dengue fever

There are four varieties of dengue, and while the majority of cases cause a mild flu-like sickness, severe dengue can develop, for which there is now no therapy. Dengue fever is widespread in over 100 countries, according to the World Health Organization, and has quietly spread to new areas, including Europe, with an estimated 100-400 million infections each year. According to the World Mosquito Program, roughly 500,000 of these cases are life-threatening, resulting in up to 25,000 deaths per year.

“The Company is gaining momentum in promoting its Covid-19 diagnosis,” stated Steven Goh, CEO of Achiko.

Later this month, Achiko plans to get additional permission from Indonesia’s Ministry of Health for its improved second-generation AptameX Covid-19 diagnostic test kit, which features a streamlined supply chain and test kit. Beyond the colourimetric assay approach, an OEM manufacturer in Taiwan is in the process of being secured, and the business is working on new formats for AptameX.

AptameX’s CE Mark registration is in the works, and the company expects to finish it in the next months. The production model will be reproduced in other countries once it is received, merging local plastics and packaging vendors with Taiwanese reagent suppliers.

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New test regulations for entering England take effect

Travelers entering England who are fully vaccinated will now be able to take a lateral flow test rather than a PCR test which is more expensive.

After the new rules went into effect on October 24, customers will be able to save money while traveling.

Holidaymakers with double jabs who arrive in England from countries, not on the UK’s red list can now opt for a lateral flow test rather than a PCR test.

Rather than the standard Covid-19 PCR, lateral flow tests must be performed as soon as feasible on the day of arrival in England or before the end of a passenger’s second day, according to the government.

The cheaper tests may now be purchased from a list of private providers on GOV.UK for as little as £22 according to NorthantsLive.

Because NHS Test and Trace lateral flow tests cannot be utilized for overseas travel, testing must be purchased from a government-approved commercial source.
A PCR test, on the other hand, can still be used, thus individuals who have already purchased the test will not be disadvantaged.

Passengers must snap a photo of their lateral flow test and the booking reference provided by the private provider and submit it back to them to validate the result, according to the new rules.

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CRP Blood Test High Levels

The results of the test might be unclear sometimes when you are trying to figure out yourself what may cause CRP Blood Test Hight Level. There are many reasons and some other helpful information about CRP blood tests you should be aware of.

What is CRP Blood Test?

C-reactive protein (CRP) testing is a blood test that determines the level of C-reactive protein in your blood. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a blood test that determines how much inflammation is present in your body.

Infections and numerous long-term disorders create high levels of CRP. However, a CRP test can’t tell you where the inflammation is or what’s causing it. To determine the source and location of the inflammation, more tests are required.

What does CRP high level mean?

CRP blood test high
CRP Blood Test High

Inflammation is indicated by a high level of CRP in the blood. It can be caused by a number of things, ranging from infection to cancer.

High CRP levels can also signal inflammation in the heart’s arteries, which can lead to an increased risk of a heart attack. The CRP test, on the other hand, is a very broad diagnostic, and CRP levels can be increased in any inflammatory illness.

The amount of CRP in a liter of blood is measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L). In general, a low C-reactive protein level is preferable to a high one since it implies that the body is less prone to inflammation.

A value of less than 1 mg/L suggests a minimal risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

You’re at intermediate risk if your blood sugar level is between 1 and 2.9 mg/L.

A value of more than 3 mg/L indicates a high risk of cardiovascular disease.

A value of more than 10 mg/L may indicate the need for additional tests to establish the source of such severe inflammation in your body. This unusually high value could indicate:

C-reactive protein is measured in milligrams of CRP per liter of blood (mg/L). In general, a low C-reactive protein level is better than a high one, because it indicates less inflammation in the body.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, a reading of less than 1 mg/L indicates you’re at low risk of cardiovascular disease.

A reading between 1 and 2.9 mg/L means you’re at intermediate risk.

A reading greater than 3 mg/L means you’re at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

A reading above 10 mg/L may signal a need for further testing to determine the cause of such significant inflammation in your body. This especially high reading may indicate:

  • tuberculosis
  • a bone infection, or osteomyelitis
  • IBD
  • an autoimmune arthritis flare-up
  • lupus, connective tissue disease, or other autoimmune diseases
  • pneumonia or other significant infection
  • cancer, especially lymphoma

Doctors disagree about the consequences of elevated CRP levels. Some experts feel that elevated CRP levels are linked to an increased risk of heart attack or stroke.

  • CRP Blood Test
    CRP Blood Test (C-Reactive Protein)

According to the Physicians’ Health Study, healthy adult males with high CRP levels are three times more likely to suffer a heart attack than those with low CRP levels. This was among males who had never suffered a heart attack before.
This test may be ordered in conjunction with others to determine a person’s risk of heart disease or stroke. CRP may potentially be utilized as a predictor of health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to new research (COPD)

This test may be ordered in conjunction with others to determine a person’s risk of heart disease or stroke. CRP may potentially be utilized as a predictor of health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to new research (COPD). A CRP test may also be ordered by doctors to diagnose inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBD)

Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of arthritis that affects the joints.


Helicobacter Pylori Test

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Can a positive celiac blood test mean something else?

can a positive celiac blood test mean something else

After a celiac test has shown positive results you may still have doubts whether it’s celiac disease or can a positive celiac blood test mean something else? Let’s explore this issue in more detail.

People with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of certain antibodies in their blood. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as it perceives gluten (proteins found in wheat, rye, and barley) as a threat. You must be on a gluten-free diet for antibody (blood) testing to be accurate.
The tTG-IgA test will be positive in about 98% of celiac patients who are on a diet containing gluten. This is called the sensitivity of the test.
There is still a small risk of a false-positive test result. There we are again with our question: can a positive celiac blood test mean something else? The answer is yes, especially for people with associated autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes, autoimmune liver disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis, and heart failure who do not have celiac disease.

  • Celiac Blood Test
    Celiac Blood Test

There are other antibody tests available to double-check for potential false positives or false negatives, but due to the potential false antibody test results, a biopsy of the small intestine is the only most accurate way to diagnose celiac disease.
At the same time, given the high predictive value of a positive serological test result (> 95%), increased TGA-IgA 10 norms the upper limit of the reference value and a positive test for EMA-IgA in a separate blood sample reduce the risk of false-positive results. How consequently, the diagnosis of celiac disease can be made without a biopsy of the small intestine.

The endomysial IgA antibody (EMA) test is generally for people who have difficulty diagnosing celiac disease. It is not as sensitive as the tTG-IgA test and is more expensive.

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How contagious is HSV 1 genitally?

Everyone knows that HSV 2 is a genital infection but how contagious is HSV 1 genitally? Let’s try to answer this question shortly.

HSV1 infection has several names: “cold” on the lips, fever on the lips, herpes on the lips, herpes labialis, or labial herpes.

How contagious is HSV 1 genitally
Herpes labialis

A cold sore on the lips is primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I). 95% of people have this virus in their bodies.
HSV-1 is transmitted primarily through oral contact and causes oral herpes (symptoms of which can manifest as “fever on the lips”), but can also cause genital herpes.
Herpes simplex virus can be contracted through skin contact, contact with vesicles, and sometimes even in the absence of visible lesions.

In order to clarify how contagious is HSV 1 genitally, you need to differentiate the ways of transmission for both infections. HSV-2 is more commonly transmitted sexually, but HSV-1 herpes can also be contracted through, for example, oral sex. According to the WHO, from 50% to 80% of the adult population of developed countries are infected with herpes of the first type and about 20% with herpes of the second type. Because symptoms are often subtle, 90% may not even be aware of their infection.

  • HSV1 HSV2 test
    HSV1 HSV2 test Herpes 1 and 2 (genital herpes)
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How accurate is the CEA blood test?

Imagine a situation when a doctor gives someone a referral to the CEA blood test.

how accurate is the CEA blood test

What feelings does the patient feel after receiving such a referral and waiting for the result? Horror, fear, despair.

Let’s find out how accurate is the CEA blood test and why we actually need it.

CEA (cancer-embryonic antigen) is found in some adult tissues in very small quantities. In tumor processes, the concentration of CEA in the blood increases significantly. An increase in the concentration of this marker occurs in colorectal cancer, cancer of the lung, breast, or pancreas, metastases of malignant tumors in the liver, bone tissue, prostate, and ovarian tumors. At the same time, an increase occurs in benign diseases of the intestines, liver, and lungs, especially in heavy smokers.

Determination of most of the tumor markers is important and should be used in the presence of clinical manifestations of the tumor and its instrumental confirmation for differential diagnosis or monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.

  • CEA Blood Test
    CEA Blood Test

As a screening, the analysis for tumor markers should not be used. However, this does not mean that the marker does not contribute to the early detection of tumors, but only that such an examination does not improve the prognosis of the average group of people. At the same time, no one can say how it will affect the life of a particular person.

Once you know you have cancer, The CEA test can help your doctor monitor your treatment.
So to answer the question of how accurate is the CEA blood test we need to know with what purpose it is performed. It is quite accurate and useful in helping your doctor find the appropriate treatment, see how well radiation, chemotherapy, surgery have worked during treatment, see if cancer has come back after treatment.

It is imperative that any examination is prescribed by a doctor who has sufficient knowledge and can interpret the result of the analysis for the benefit of the patient. This will help not only maintain health but also avoid stressful situations and unnecessary material expenditures.

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Testnord Blood Test Iron Levels

According to the interpretation of the results of Testnord Blood Test Iron Levels, you might get three outcomes.

  • Iron Level Blood Test
    Iron Level Blood Test (Anemia Test testing Ferritin)

The first one is a positive result. The result means that the ferritin concentration in blood is normal and that there is no potential iron deficiency. A positive result means that ferritin concentration in blood is lower than 20 ng/mL and a possible iron deficiency. Ferritin is a protein that binds and stores most of the iron in the body. Neither only a minor part of the ferritin is found in blood, it corresponds to the amount of iron stored in the body.

Second – negative and means that the ferritin concentration in blood is too low. Iron reserves are insufficient. You should consult a doctor because it may be an iron deficiency anemia. f the result is negative, it means that the ferritin level is higher than 20 ng/mL and is within the norm. However, if the symptoms persist, it is recommended to consult a doctor.

Please note that the iron test kits of other producers might have different blood test iron levels.

And the last result is invalid and it arises in the case of wrong utilization or inability of the test kit. Nevertheless, the result can be incorrect if the test gets wet before the test performing or if the quantity of blood dispensed in the sample well is not sufficient. If an invalid result occurs we recommend repeating the test with a new testing device and with fresh blood.

The test is accurate and has been used for more than 10 years by professionals in the field. Evaluation reports show an overall agreement of at least 98% with reference methods. Although this test is reliable, false positive or false negative results could be obtained.

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What can cause a false positive herpes test?

The results of the HSV-1 or HSV-2 test might be different from what you expected. If you don’t experience any symptoms or signs you may wonder what can cause a false positive herpes test.
Many STDs tests can produce false-positive results. There is a bunch of reasons.

  • HSV1 HSV2 test
    HSV1 HSV2 test Herpes 1 and 2 (genital herpes)
  • Herpes 2 test
    HSV 2 test (genital herpes)
  • If nfection decreases in the person being tested and the test does not identify enough amount of antibodies.
  • If you are at low risk of herpes infection (HSV2).
  • If you have only HSV1, you may reacive a false positive for HSV2 infection.
  • If you have other viruses from the same family like varicella zoster virus (true for IgM tests).

If you couldn’t explain what can cause a false positive herpes test, then it’s worth visiting your family doctor and seeking some advice.

HSV-1 is usually associated with infection in the oropharyngeal area and eyes, while HSV-2 causes mostly genital and neonatal infections. However, the tissue specificity is not absolute, HSV-2 can be isolated occasionally from the oropharynx and 5-10% of primary genital infections may be caused by HSV-1. The antibody of the IgM class is produced during the first 2-3 weeks of infection with HSV and exists only transiently in most patients. Serologic procedures, which measure the presence of IgM antibodies, help discriminate between primary and recurrent infections since IgM antibodies are rarely found in recurrent infections. If present in a sample, high-affinity IgG antibodies to HSV may interfere with the detection of IgM-specific antibodies. High-affinity IgG antibodies may preferentially bind to HSV-1 antigen leading to false-negative IgM results. Also, rheumatoid factor and antigen-specific IgG may bind to IgG, causing false-positive IgM results. This test is CE marked for professional use. For the first time, if the patient is infected in less than 5 days, with no detected specific antibody, the result will be negative when testing.