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Can Alzheimer’s disease be detected through genetic testing?

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alzheimer genetic testing

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a steadily progressive degenerative process that leads to total dementia. Atrophy of the cerebral cortex and limbic system is accompanied by irreversible impairments of neurological and mental functions, predominantly deficient in nature. In AD, there is an increasing decay of memory, intelligence and higher cortical functions, leading to total dementia with the development of helplessness and the need for care and constant monitoring of the patient.

In persons with first-degree relatives suffering from AD, the risk of the disease increases by 3.5 times. Concordance for AD in dizygotic twins is 35%, and in monozygotic twins – more than 80%. Consequently, most cases have a complex genetic contribution.

The genetic heritability of Alzheimer’s disease

Clinical Significance: Genetic predisposition is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, it has been shown that AD includes several genetically heterogeneous forms, united by similar clinical and histopathological features. The cause or risk factor for the development of some (if not all) forms of AD are mutations or polymorphisms in a number of genes.

The study of genetic markers allows you to identify the risk group of patients with Alzheimer’s disease for possible corrective action.

Indications for research:

  • determination of the risk of asthma and the prognosis of severity in case of manifestations of dementia in a patient;
  • examination of relatives of patients diagnosed with asthma to identify an increased risk of developing the disease.

Alzheimer’s disease has a hereditary component. People with the disease in their parents or siblings are at a slightly higher chance of developing it. However, we’re still a long way from fully comprehending the genetic changes that cause the disease to develop.

Alzheimer’s disease is most commonly triggered by older years. It primarily affects adults over the age of 65. A person’s risk of having Alzheimer’s disease doubles every five years once they reach this age. Dementia affects one out of every six persons over the age of 80, with Alzheimer’s disease being the most common cause.

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